Your dog is howling and barking at nothing. Maybe he walks into a room and looks confused, or forgets that he's housebroken. While your 8-year-old or older pooch may just be howling in pain or barking because he's going deaf and is easily startled, chances are he has cognitive dysfunction syndrome. CDS is often called doggy Alzheimer's. It's a form of dementia that affects your dog's memory, learning ability and awareness.
Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a form of dementia in older dogs. A 1997 study at the University of California-Davis found 68 percent of dogs between the ages of 11 and 16 suffering from some form of CDS. Dogs suffering from CDS suffer from confusion and disorientation, they can forget their house-training, slow down or stop eating, get lost in their own house or yard, and fail to sleep at night, only to rest during the day. Some dogs whine and cry or bark, forgetting where they are. Sometimes they show no interest in their humans, forgetting who their humans are. Some sleep too much, become anxious, lick themselves excessively, or forget to groom themselves altogether.
Just as scientists don't know what exactly causes Alzheimer's in humans, veterinarians don't know what causes cognitive dysfunction syndrome. There may be a genetic component, but that is conjecture. Age obviously has a role since it occurs in aging dogs and not in young ones. Although cognitive dysfunction syndrome is not Alzheimer's, it is similar in severity and the changes seen in the dog's brain.
There's no test to determine if your dog has cognitive dysfunction syndrome. Veterinarians are able to diagnosis it through symptoms and your dog's medical history. Knowing when the symptoms started to occur and whether there were injuries or other factors will help your veterinarian evaluate your dog. Dogs who suffer from cognitive dysfunction syndrome usually fit into at least one of four categories: disoriented/confused, lack of seeking attention, incontinence and changes in activity and sleep patterns.
The only effective treatment is a drug called selegiline, marketed under the brand name Anipryl. This medication has been found to be 77 percent effective treating cognitive dysfunction syndrome, with many owners reporting changes within two weeks, according to studies cited by veterinarian Diane Frank in her paper "Cognitive Dysfunction in Dogs," published by International Veterinary Information Service. Some dogs, however, needed at least two months for changes to occur. Your dog must take this medication every day for life. It can extend quality of life, but also helps the dog live longer.
- International Veterinary Information Service: Cognitive Dysfunction in Dogs
- PetPlace.com: Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Dogs
- PetMD: Dementia (Geriatric) in Dogs
- CDSinDogs.com: What is Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome?
- The Merck Veterinary Manual: Aging and Cognitive Dysfunction
- CDSinDogs.com: Senior Dog CDS Checklist
- Brand X Pictures/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images