A dog's need for vitamins depends on several factors, from the food he eats to his level of activity and health. Some dogs can benefit from the addition of certain vitamins to their diet, but consult your dog's veterinarian before choosing a vitamin supplement. Certain vitamins can cause toxic reactions if given in excess.
Your dog's food is the most important factor in his health. If you feed a high-quality prepared dog food, he is probably getting the nutrition he needs without an additional vitamin. Read the ingredients on the bag or can of dog food you use. Choose a food with no by-products, wheat, corn or soy fillers, and an appropriate protein level for your dog's activity level and life stage. If you feed a home-prepared diet, your dog will probably need vitamin supplements for complete nutrition. Depending on the ingredients in your dog's diet, he may need additional calcium, vitamins B, C, and E, because some foods don't provide enough to meet nutritional requirements. Consult a canine nutritionist to determine supplements needed in a home-prepared diet.
If your dog is especially active or competes in performance sports, he may benefit from a vitamin supplement if his food does not provide enough nutrition. Canine athletes need higher levels of fat, carbohydrates and protein. Ask your dog's vet if his food provides enough nutrition or whether a vitamin supplement made for performance dogs is needed.
Your vet may suggest supplementing certain vitamins for a dog with health issues. Glucosamine and condritin supplements may help an arthritic dog. Fish oil is recommended for skin, coat and to reduce inflammation. Senior dogs may benefit from antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C or E. Vitamins for specific conditions should be administered with direction from your vet.
Some vitamins can harm your dog if given in excess. Fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K are not easily eliminated and can build up to toxic levels in a dog's system. These vitamins are good for your dog at the proper dose, but giving too much can make your dog sick. Excessive calcium can be bad for bone growth, especially in large-breed dogs. Some vitamins interfere with other nutrients. Phosphorus interferes with calcium absorption. Phosphorus also interferes with sodium. Copper and iron, zinc and magnesium are other competing minerals.
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